- land access
- stakeholder engagement
- social assessment
Development and implementation of Monitoring and Evaluation Plans to ensure that social action plans are properly implemented to address project impacts and maximize project benefits
Monitoring and evaluation of a project are critical in terms of answering the questions of: ‘What constitutes success?’ and ‘When have we finished?’ Unfortunately, many projects only get around to thinking seriously about monitoring and evaluation after they have conducted baseline studies and are well advanced in the process of project planning and stakeholder engagement, or are even about to commence implementation. As discussed in Chapter _ concerning Impact Assessment, it is critical that monitoring and evaluation is considered and integrated into project planning from the outset, so that meaningful indicators can be developed early and measured in order to answer these critical questions.
Monitoring and evaluation have the following general objectives:
- Monitoring specific situations or difficulties arising from the implementation, and of the compliance of the implementation with objectives and methods set out in the Resettlement Action Plan, or other relevant management plans
- Evaluating emergent, mid-and long-term impacts of the Project on the welfare of impacted households, communities, and local government
- Sufficient involvement of the project affected persons in participatory monitoring and evaluation of short term, mid-term and long term project activities and effects
- Monitoring and evaluation should give particular attention to the project-affected communities, especially vulnerable groups, such as female headed households, sharecroppers and tenants
- Monitoring & Evaluation should take place from the outset of projects, and occur through the planning and engagement phases, as opposed to only occurring during implementation. It should continue post-moves, and monitor the success of livelihoods and vulnerable persons programs.
The purpose of monitoring is to provide project managers, as well as directly affected persons, households, communities, and project financiers, with timely, concise, indicative information on whether compensation, resettlement and other impact mitigation measures are on track to achieve sustainable livelihood restoration and improvement in the welfare of the affected people, or that adjustments are needed.
Internal monitoring can generally take place on a monthly basis by a dedicated on-site M&E Officer, while external consultants can undertake M&E on a quarterly basis. An internal M&E Officer is important to maintain ongoing M&E, and to ensure the Project is ready before external monitors, including project financiers, review the Project. In addition to on-site M&E Officers, a project may consider having an Expert Review Panel, which would be made up of experienced land access and resettlement practitioners, who can advise the project on appropriate M&E mechanisms, as well as identifying key issues and gaps as early as possible in the project cycle, and anticipate issues that may be raised by external reviewers, such as those providing project finance. This enables the project to address issues in advance, rather than discovering these later through the usual M&E processes.
External monitoring and evaluation needs to be undertaken by independent reviewers, who are experienced in the planning and delivery of social action plans and land access and resettlement projects.
Intersocial specializes in the design, planning and implementation of monitoring and evaluation frameworks for projects. We have undertaken internal and external M&E on behalf of project proponents and funding institutions, as well as participating in expert panels.